Posts tagged: blood pressure

15 Ways To Lower Your Blood Pressure Naturally

15 Ways To Lower Your Blood Pressure Naturally
15 Ways To Lower Your Blood Pressure Naturally. Graphic © Photos – Pixabay / Pexels (PD)

Are you hypertensive? According to the AHA, an estimated 100 million adults in the United States were affected by hypertension in 2018. That’s half of the adults in the United States living with hypertension. Because of aging, unhealthy lifestyle choices, and various co-morbidities, this number is expected to get even higher in 2019. Updated guidelines on how to diagnose hypertension were released in November 2017, bringing the threshold lower to either a systolic pressure of 130 and/or a diastolic pressure of 80 (previously, the lower limit of a hypertension diagnosis was 140/90). That means a blood pressure of 120/80 already makes a person pre-hypertensive and should be adjusting his or her lifestyle to get the blood pressure within normal limits. [1]

Pediatric Hypertension

These days, kids are growing up with a diet of junk food and severely sedentary lifestyles. Your child might be hypertensive, a diagnosis typically made for adults, and you wouldn’t know it. Statistics say that 3.5 percent of children and teenagers have hypertension (a rise from previous data reports of 1 to 2 percent). Congenital problems with the kidneys or the heart can cause hypertension but otherwise, the hypertension is completely lifestyle-related. The diagnostic guidelines for adults also apply to children. [2]

How do you lower your blood pressure the natural way? Barring severe hypertension which will require you to take anti-hypertensive medication, there are different healthy lifestyle choices you can make in order to lower your blood pressure naturally:

1. Regular Exercise: Maintaining a healthy body weight is one of the most effective ways to keep your blood pressure at bay. Healthy adults should typically have 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise a week; that’s 30 minutes for five out of seven days a week. Moderate exercise includes brisk walking and dancing while vigorous intensity exercise includes running, cycling, and aerobics. If you opt for vigorous exercise, you can decrease the number of minutes of activity you do each week to 75 minutes. A mixture of these two types of activities will work as well. [3]

2. Cut Back On Salt: Aside from exercise, a healthy diet can also help you lower your blood pressure. A diet high in sodium causes fluid retention, which in turn causes your blood pressure to rise. An estimated 86 percent of hypertensive adults have a high sodium diet. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans means reducing your sodium intake to less than the recommended 2,300 milligrams per day (the American Heart Association actually recommends an ideal amount of 1,500 milligrams of sodium per day). Instead of using salt to flavor your meals, opt for herbs and spices instead when you cook. [4]

3. The DASH Diet: A better diet than one that has low sodium is the DASH diet — Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. This diet significantly lowers sodium, but also increases your intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products – food that is high in calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Like previously mentioned, the standard DASH diet recommends 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day while a lower sodium DASH diet recommends 1,500 milligrams of sodium per day. Being on this kind of diet can lower your systolic blood pressure by 8 to 14 points. The DASH diet is composed of 6 to 8 servings of grains, 4 to 5 servings of vegetables, 4 to 5 servings of fruits, 2 to 3 servings of dairy, 6 or less servings of lean meat, poultry, and/or fish, 4 to 5 servings of nuts, seeds, and legumes, and 2 to 3 servings of fats and oils per day. Sweets, if you really can’t avoid them, should be 5 servings or less per week. [5]

4. Probiotics: Probiotics are as healthy as the advertisements say. In a study published in 2014 found that involving probiotics in the diet can help lower blood pressure. Over nine trials and more than 500 participants were involved in the study and the results concluded that probiotics lowered their systolic blood pressure by 3 to 4 points and diastolic blood pressure by 2 to 3 points. The study recommends that probiotic intake should be done over 8 weeks or more to show significant changes in blood pressure. [6]

5. Avoid Eating Out: Fast food is not only high in sodium but fat as well. Even non-fast food restaurants can have high sodium in their dishes. Remember, high sodium food doesn’t always taste salty. In 2016, the CDC reported that restaurants used a lot of salt, which in turn largely affected the sodium intake of the American population. The best option is to cook your own meals; do meal-prep if you can so you can bring home-cooked meals to work or school. [4]

6. Monitor Your Blood Pressure At Home: If you’re blood pressure is on the fence, say 120/80 to 130/90, you can start monitoring yourself at home. Digital blood pressure monitors or sphygmomanometers are widely available, either online or in stores, and can either run on batteries or electricity. If you are already a diagnosed hypertensive, it is a must that you monitor yourself at home. Ideally, blood pressure is monitored in the morning and in the evening, before eating, drinking, or partaking in moderate to vigorous activity. This kind of monitoring is ideal so you can gauge yourself and the adjustments you need to make to your lifestyle.

7. Stop Smoking: Nicotine plays a big role in blood pressure elevation, especially among chronic smokers. Smoking is one of the biggest risk factors in cardiovascular disease because it affects the blood vessels in the body, causing arterial stiffness, inflammation, and lipid modification, which in turn can raise blood pressure (and even cause a heart attack). You should also take into consideration that the mere act of smoking, even just one stick, causes the body to activate the sympathetic nervous system, which is the fight or flight response and causes a sudden increase in blood pressure; prolonged smoking, in conclusion, can increase your risk for, if not directly cause, hypertension. [7]

8. Cut Calories: Aside from exercise, an additional way you can use to help you lose weight and decrease your risk for hypertension is to reduce the amount of calories you include in your diet. While the DASH diet is specifically targeted towards people who are already diagnosed hypertensives, simple dieting or cutting carbs and calories may be an effective way to fend of hypertension among healthy adults. Avoid white carbs like rice, pasta, and white bread and opt for their whole-grain counterparts instead to help you lose weight.

9. De-Stress: Stress is one the contributory risk factors for hypertension. In fact, the Mayo Clinic cites stressful situations as a direct cause of acute hypertensive emergencies. However, studies that link long-term stress to hypertension are still unclear. In 2010, a study published by Spruill focused on stress and its link to hypertension. The study found that various psychosocial factors such as occupational stress and racial discrimination, especially among high risk groups. To combat this, the study encourages stress reductions activities like muscle relaxation and meditation in order to help combat the effects of stress on blood pressure. Remember to take a break when you feel stressed or overwhelmed. [8]

10. Include Strength Training: While regular aerobic exercise is an excellent way to lose weight and keep your blood pressure within the normal range, adding regular strength training can help diversify your exercise regimen and improve these benefits. While lifting weights could make your blood pressure increase acutely, long-term benefits outweigh the risks if the exercise is done properly. Stronger muscles and longer stamina from strength training reduces stress and demands on the heart, which can help reduce blood pressure. [9]

11. Cut Back On Drinking: Lowering your blood pressure includes a lot of cutting back — and that includes drinking alcohol. Moderate alcohol consumption, which means one drink a day for women and two drinks for men, could have potential benefits on blood pressure. However, any more than this can be quite detrimental to your health. Different studies have focused on alcohol-induced hypertension but the mechanism on how it causes high blood pressure is still something to be studied further. A study done on women in 2018 found that women who had more drinks per day had higher baseline blood pressure than those who didn’t. [10] [11]

12. Don’t Drink Too Much Coffee: Actually, avoid caffeinated drinks in general. Coffee, however delicious it may be, contains caffeine, a substance that works very similar to nicotine. While your cup of joe may give you your need energy boost, it may also be boosting your blood pressure and contributing to hypertension. Moderate coffee intake may not have immediate effects on your blood pressure, but prolonged drinking of caffeinated beverages (including tea and chocolate) may be a deciding factor in whether or not you become diagnosed with hypertension in the future. [12]

13. Get Your Daily Dose Of Sunlight: Did you know that vitamin D deficiency, the vitamin that you get from sunlight, is linked to hypertension? A 2017 study focused on the associations between blood pressure, sunlight, and vitamin D and concluded that there was an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels in the body and blood pressure. While this association still needs to be researched further, it wouldn’t hurt to get your daily dose of vitamin D each day by taking a walk in the sunlight. [13]

14. Good Quality Sleep: Good quality sleep doesn’t mean sleeping for longer hours, but rather sleeping that is uninterrupted for a set period of time, not necessarily eight hours. When you’ve had good quality sleep, you will feel well-rested instead of tired, despite the number of hours you’ve managed to get some shut eye. Aside from good energy levels and better productivity at work or school, good sleep can also help reduce your risk for hypertension. A 2016 study reported that short sleep duration among insomniacs in particular was associated with an increase risk of comorbid hypertension. [14]

15. Build A Good Support System: As with any healthy lifestyle, having a good support system is the best way to make sure you maintain good health habits. Exercising, dieting, and laying off bad habits like smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating fast food is easier (and more fun!) when you have your friends and family supporting (or doing those things with) you! Fighting hypertension is better in numbers; you help yourself and you help your loved ones as well.


[1] American Heart Association (2018). More than 100 million Americans have high blood pressure, AHA says.

[2] Scutti, S. (2017). Many more children will suddenly be diagnosed with high blood pressure.

[3] American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults and Kids. American Heart Association.

[4] Salt. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[5] DASH diet: Healthy eating to lower your blood pressure. Mayo Clinic.

[6] Khalesi, S., et. al. (2014). Effect of Probiotics on Blood Pressure.

[7] Virdis, A., et. al. (2010). Cigarette smoking and hypertension.

[8] Spruill, T. (2013). Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Hypertension.

[9] World Health Organization. What is Moderate-intensity and Vigorous-intensity Physical Activity?

[10] Husain, K., Ansari, R. & Ferder, L. (2014). Alcohol-induced hypertension: Mechanism and prevention.

[11] Fisher, N., Orav, E. & Chang, G. (2018). Effects of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in hypertensive women.

[12] Chei, C., et. al. (2018). Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

[13] Rostand, S., et. al. (2017). Associations of Blood Pressure, Sunlight, and Vitamin D in Community-Dwelling Adults: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (Regards) Study.

[14] Bathgate, C., et. al. (2016). Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

7 Foods To Lower Blood Pressure

7 Foods To Lower Blood Pressure
Graphic: © Image sources – see foot of article.

Did you know that up to 1 in 3 adults are affected by high blood pressure (also known as hypertension)? [1] This condition has been shown to increase the risk of kidney disease, stroke, and heart disease. Luckily, you can lower blood pressure and promote your overall wellbeing through lifestyle modifications and dietary changes.

1. Low-Fat Milk (Skim Milk): The American Heart Association notes that the low-fat content and high levels of calcium in skim milk/yogurt are important dietary element for managing high blood pressure. [2]

2. Spinach: Leafy greens such as spinach and collard greens are rich in potassium, which helps control hypertension. [3]

3. Sunflower Seeds: Some studies show that a handful of sunflowers seeds could lower your blood pressure thanks to their magnesium content and their ability to inhibit an enzyme that constricts blood vessels. [4]

4. Dark Chocolate: Looking for a reason to enjoy a delicious bar of chocolate? Research suggests that dark chocolate lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. [5]

5. Soybeans: An article from the American College of Cardiology claims that “Eating foods that contain isoflavones – a key compound in soy milk, tofu, green tea, and even peanuts – every day may help young adults lower their blood pressure.” [6]

6. Bananas: Bananas contain 422 milligrams of potassium – and according to the American Heart Association, the mineral helps manage high blood pressure. [3][7]

7. Baked Potatoes: Baked potatoes contain potassium and magnesium – both of which promote healthy blood flow. [8]

Please note that this content should never be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinicians.


[1] About High Blood Pressure

[2] Yogurt may protect women from developing high blood pressure

[3] How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

[4] Richmond K. et al. 2012. Markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes are improved by the daily consumption of almonds or sunflower kernels: a feeding study.

[5] Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

[6] Compound in soy products may help lower blood pressure

[7] FoodData Central Search Results

[8] Weaver, C. 2013. Potassium and Health (2013)

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7 Foods To Lower Blood Pressure
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Mega List Of 30 Herbs Found Beneficial For High Blood Pressure

Mega List of 30 Herbs Found Beneficial For High Blood Pressure
Mega List Of 30 Herbs Found Beneficial For High Blood Pressure. Graphic © Image sources – see foot of article

Hypertension (HTN), aka high blood pressure, is a chronic medical condition that has been associated with a high-salt diet, emotional stress, alcohol, smoking, inactivity, and caffeine. This disease is also linked to other conditions such as congestive heart failure, stroke, aneurysm, kidney malfunction, and blindness.

Dietary and lifestyle changes and medicines may help you control your blood pressure and reduce the risk of associated health complications. Orthodox medicine prescribes medications for blood pressure control, however, some of these medicines are expensive and have been noted for side effects. However numerous alternative medicines exist; notably plants or herbs found by research to have hypotensive and antihypertensive therapeutic values.

Here is a “master list” of medicinal plants and health foods that have been scientifically studied and are reported to have hypotensive and antihypertensive effects.

1. Garlic

This herb contains an active compound called allicin which gives its characteristic odor and many of its healing benefits. Garlic’s antioxidative and antihypertensive effect has been proven by a 2008 study [1] published in the journal BMC Cardiovascular Disorders that found the effectiveness of garlic in reducing BP in individuals with HTN.

2. Celery

Celery is a diuretic which enhances the excretion of sodium and chloride in the urine and may explain the herb’s effect on blood pressure. It is one of the herbs cited by an Indian study [2] that have uses related to the symptoms of hypertension.

3. Ginger

Commonly used in Asian cooking, ginger may help control blood pressure and improve blood circulation. The blood pressure-lowering effect of ginger was confirmed by Ghayur and Gilani [3] in a study that first appeared in the January 2005 issue of the Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. This research was done on rats. There are still few human trials for the hypotensive effect of ginger.

4. Basil

Extract of basil has been shown to have a hypertensive effect, although only briefly. It causes a fall in blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Its cardiovascular effect is linked to eugenol, an essential oil [4] that offers a transient reduction in arterial blood pressure.

5. Tomato

This fruit is rich in lycopene, beta-carotene, and vitamin E, which are known as effective antioxidants. A 2006 study [5] showed the correlation between a short-treatment with antioxidant-rich tomato extract and reduced blood pressure in patients with hypertension.

6. Flaxseed

This annual herb has omega-3 fatty acids, which have been found to lower blood pressure. Many studies had posited the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on hypertensive patients and those with high-normal blood pressure including one by Mori [6] who published his work in the journal Cellular and Molecular Biology in February 2010.

7. French Lavender

This culinary herb contains oil that can also induce relaxation and lower blood pressure. Its crude extract has been reported to reduce BP in a 2007 study [7] conducted on rats. French lavender is a culinary herb whose flowers are also used in baked goods.

8. Carrot

Carrots are high in beta-carotene and potassium, a nutrient that is shown to be effective in reducing high blood pressure [8] . Beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant which helps fight disease.

9. Cinnamon

Consuming this tasty herb everyday can lower blood pressure in people with diabetes, according to studies. This has been proven by a 2013 study [9] that discovered the association between consumption of cinnamon and reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with type-2 diabetes. Instead of using sugar, you add a dash of cinnamon to your coffee in the morning for a unique taste.

10. Ginkgo Biloba

This herb is rich in antioxidants, terpenoids, and flavonoids, which are not only good for your heart but are also known to lower blood pressure. The antihypertensive effect of ginkgo along with prescribed medications was posited by the University of Maryland Medical Center. [10] However, the institution advises the need of monitoring by a healthcare provider.

11. Indian Snakeroot aka. Rauwolfia Serpentina

This tropical plant has been used for years as a traditional medicine for ailments related to the heart. It contains high levels of alkaloid reserpine [11] , a powerful compound for normal heart function. Indian snakeroot leaves are useful when high blood pressure is due to anxiety or stress.

12. Olives

This herb has been widely used in traditional remedies as herbal teas and extracts in European and Mediterranean countries. It contains a compound known as oleuropein which possesses a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting properties including hypotensive effect [12] .

13. Onions

This spice is rich in quercetin which is an antioxidant flavonol found to prevent heart disease and stroke. Quercetin supplementation was found to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive people by a 2007 study [13] by Edwards and colleagues.

14. Oregano

Carvacrol is a powerful compound that has been proven to be effective against blood pressure. Oregano is rich in this compound which was also found to reduce heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. [14]

15. Dandelion

Found in temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America, this hardy herb has a high concentration of potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron, and sodium. Its roots and leaves produce a substance called mannitol [15] which is used as a treatment for hypertension.

16. Parsley

Cultivated since ancient times, this diuretic herb is utilized either as a medicine or food. Parsley contains compounds such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosides. You can make a tea [16] from the herb’s seed as a treatment for high blood pressure.

17. Lemon Grass

This plant has no cholesterol and is low in calories, making it a beneficial flavoring for cooking and tea. Lemon grass is also a detoxifier that contains a compound called citral [17] which removes excess cholesterol, fats, and uric acid.

18. Cilantro aka. Coriander

Cilantro is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This herb has been reported to exhibit antioxidant properties. Its extracts showed diuretic effects as well, which would complement the treatment and management of hypertension. [18]

19. Tea

Tea has anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive effects, according to several studies. One study [19] noted the hypotensive action offered by tea. Another study demonstrated green tea’s [20] ability to reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

20. Saffron

The medicinal values of saffron [21] have been sought for over four millennia. Recent studies support the use of saffron for anti-hypertensive benefits. One was conducted in 2015 that showed the normalizing effect of safranal [22] , the main component of saffron oil, on blood pressure in chronic administration.

21. King Of Bitters

This plant – Andrographis paniculata – has been part of Southeast Asian traditional medicine as a treatment for colds. Its extracts were found to contain several compounds that induce dramatic hypotensive effects. [23]

22. Hibiscus

Also sometimes known as Roselle – this plant is used for hypertension, fever, and other diseases in folk medicine. Its buds, flowers, leaves, and petals have varied applications in cooking, personal care, and health. The antihypertensive effect of hibiscus was confirmed by a 2007 study. [24]

23. Black Cumin

This spice is an important kitchen item in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. In addition to being effective against diabetes, black cumin also has an antihypertensive role. Thymoquinone is a bioactive component that contributes to its healing effects. [25]

24. Ginseng

Several studies confirmed the efficacy of this plant in causing [26] a significant decrease in systemic and diastolic blood pressures. Ginseng’s hypotensive effect is linked to an improvement in arterial functions.

25. Chinese Sage

This traditional Chinese herb is commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Its antihypertensive effect is widely supported by recent studies including a 2011 research [27] published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology.

26. Chinese Goldthread

Widely used in Chinese folk medicine, this plant contains a compound called berberine which has the ability to lower blood pressure. This hypotensive action was confirmed by Affuso et. al. [28] in a 2010 study published in the World Journal of Cardiology.

27. Cardamom

This seasoning from India has been demonstrated to have antioxidant properties. A study that used powdered cardamom [29] for its participants daily saw significant reductions in their blood pressure readings.

28. Cat’s Claw

This herbal medicine is used in traditional Chinese practice to treat hypertension. One study linked the plant’s hypotensive activity to a compound called hirsutine [30] .

29. Black Plum

Researchers found out that oral administration [31] of the extract of this plant had a hypotensive effect on the blood pressure of rats. The extract reduced both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

30. Mistletoe

The aqueous extracts of this plant were studied if it could produce an antihypertensive effect without alteration in heart rate. This 2006 study [32] highlighted the therapeutic action offered by prolonged administration of the extract on cholesterol level.


[1] Ried K et. al. 2008. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

[2] Somanadhan B et. al. 1999. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. An ethnopharmacological survey for potential angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors from Indian medicinal plants

[3] Ghayur MN and Gilani AH. 2005. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels

[4] Babar A et. al. 2015. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review

[5] Engelhard YN et. al. 2006. American Heart Journal. Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

[6] Mori TA. 2010. Cellular and Molecular Biology. Omega-3 fatty acids and blood pressure

[7] Gilani AH et. al. 2000. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of the anticonvulsant, sedative and antispasmodic activities of Lavandula stoechas L.

[8] Rajiv Sharma. 2005. Improve Your Health With Dairy Products & Juices

[9] Akilen R et. al. 2012. Nutrition. Effect of short-term administration of cinnamon on blood pressure in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

[10] Possible Interactions with: Ginkgo Biloba

[11] Jerie P. 2007. Casopis Lekaru Ceskych. [Milestones of cardiovascular therapy. IV. Reserpine]

[12] Ben Salem M et. al. 2014. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. Pharmacological Activities of Olea europaeaLeaves

[13] Edwards RL et. al. 2007. The Journal of Nutrition. Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects

[14] Aydin Y et. al. 2007. Planta Medica. Hypotensive effects of carvacrol on the blood pressure of normotensive rats

[15] Andrews RJ et. al. 1993. Surgical Neurology. Effects of mannitol on cerebral blood flow, blood pressure, blood viscosity, hematocrit, sodium, and potassium

[16] Bahar Z et. al. 2013. African Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Herbal Therapies Used by Hypertensive Patients in Turkey

[17] Devi RC et. al. 2012. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta

[18] Jabeen Q et. al. 2009. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Coriander fruit exhibits gut modulatory, blood pressure lowering and diuretic activities

[19] Deka A and Vita JA. 2011. Pharmacological Research. Tea and cardiovascular disease

[20] Nagao et. al. 2007. Obesity. A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans

[21] Srivastava R et. al. 2010. Pharmacognosy Reviews. Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

[22] Imenshahidi M et. al. 2015. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. The effect of chronic administration of safranal on systolic blood pressure in rats

[23] Awang K et. al. 2012. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. Cardiovascular activity of labdane diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in isolated rat hearts

[24] Herrera-Arellano A et. al. 2007. Planta Medica. Clinical effects produced by a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa on patients with hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, lisinopril-controlled clinical trial

[25] Khattab MM and Nagi MN. 2007. Phytotherapy Research. Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats

[26] Rhee MY et. al. 2014. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. Blood pressure lowering effect of Korea ginseng derived ginseol K-g1

[27] Ng CF et. al. 2011. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. The anti-hypertensive effect of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Gegen (Pueraria lobata) formula in rats and its underlying mechanisms of vasorelaxation

[28] Affuso F et. al. 2010. World Journal of Cardiology. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of Berberine

[29] Verma SK et. al. 2009. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

[30] Horie S et. al. 1992. Life Sciences. Effects of hirsutine, an antihypertensive indole alkaloid from Uncaria rhynchophylla, on intracellular calcium in rat thoracic aorta

[31] Ladeji O et. al. 2005. Pytotherapy Research. Activity of aqueous extract of the bark of Vitex doniana on uterine muscle response to drugs

[32] Ben EE et. al. 2006. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Increased plasma total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels produced by the crude extract from the leaves of Viscum album (mistletoe)

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