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Rose Geranium Essential Oil – General Description
Rose geranium essential oil, which is widely utilized in aromatherapy, massage, perfumery, and cosmetics, is obtained through steam or water plus steam distillation of the leaves and stems of Pelargonium graveolens, a hardy, aromatic, evergreen shrub with snowy to pinkish white flowers and rose-scented velvety leaves that come with abundant glandular hairs. The oil appears pale yellow to greenish olive in color with a thin consistency and watery viscosity. Moreover, it has a strong, warm, and sweet rosy aroma with a minty overtone and a rich long-lasting dry-out; it blends superbly with angelica root, basil, bergamot, carrot seed, cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lime, neroli, orange, and rosemary
essential oils. 
Rose Geranium Essential Oil – Uses and Reported Benefits
Rose geranium essential oil has been reported by scientific studies to possess biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antiseptic, and wound-healing activities, in in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. It may also be one of the best essential oils for various skin-related problems such as oily or congested skin, eczema, and dermatitis.  It helps relieve burns, hemorrhoids, ulcers, edema, poor circulation, sore throat, tonsillitis, menopausal problems, digestive ailments, and kidney and bladder disorders and can be used as treatment of acne, bruises, cuts, and lice and ringworm parasitism. 
Rose Geranium Essential Oil – Contraindications and Safety
As with other essential oils, rose geranium essential oil should not in general be taken internally – though Rose geranium oil is used in foods and beverages as a flavoring.
When used in typical aromatherapy applications, it is generally considered nontoxic, non-irritant, and non-sensitizing, and it has not been heavily reported to induce any concerning side effects, although it may cause eye irritation when applied on the face and rash and burning sensation if applied undiluted on the skin surface. 
Rose Geranium Essential Oil – Scientific Studies And Research
The scientific investigation on rose geranium essential oil and its broad range of health benefits against serious ailments continues, and this comes as no surprise due to a number of tests and studies on rose geranium providing promising evidence of this plant’s medicinal potential.
Rose Geranium Essential Oil as anti-inflammatory: Boukhatem et al. (2013) recently evaluated the anti-inflammatory potency of rose geranium essential oil using carrageenan-induced paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema tests, validating this essential oil’s potential as a candidate for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. In this study, oral administration of rose geranium essential oil at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg significantly minimized the edema induced in mice by carrageenan, an inflammation-inducing agent. As evaluated through croton oil-induced ear edema method, topical application of rose geranium oil likewise resulted in dose-dependent reduction in ear edema. At a dose of 5 and 10 μl per ear, rose geranium essential oil reduced the inflammation by 73% and 88%, respectively. According to the researchers of the study, the essential oil’s anti-inflammatory effect was comparable with that of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug mainly used to alleviate pain and inflammation related to arthritis.  Abe et al. (2004) gave some light on the mechanism of action of rose geranium essential oil as an anti-inflammatory remedy, elucidating that rose geranium essential oil in vitro suppresses neutrophil recruitment and in turn inhibits neutrophil accumulation. 
Rose Geranium Essential Oil as treatment for denture stomatitis: In order to investigate the potential of rose geranium essential oil as treatment of denture stomatitis, an Iranian double-blind randomized clinical trial divided 51 female and 29 male wearers of complete dentures into two groups, a control group and a case group that needs to apply topical gel formulation of 1% rose geranium oil twice daily for 14 days. Clinical observation post treatment and mycological analysis revealed that in the case group, 34% of patients improved completely and 56% partially recovered, whereas in the control group, only 5% of patients had complete recovery and 25% manifested partial improvement. Additionally, the case group exhibited a significant reduction in fungal growth, leading the researchers of this clinical trial to conclude that 1% rose geranium oil topical gel formulation is more effective than placebo in the treatment of denture stomatitis.  Rosato et al. (2008) similarly obtained findings indicating that rose geranium essential oil effectively inhibits the growth of fungi, specifically Candida species, as assessed through agar dilution method.  Shin and Lim (2004) on the other hand reported data scientifically pointing out the antifungal action of rose geranium essential oil on the growth of Trichophyton species and the essential oil’s strong synergism with ketoconazole, an antifungal medication, against T. schoenleinii and T. soudanense. 
Rose Geranium Essential Oil as antibacerial: Rose geranium essential oil has been known to exert antibacterial activity against common bacterial pathogens. In the study of Ghannadi et al. (2012), all tested bacterial strains, especially Staphylococcus aureus, were susceptible against rose geranium essential oil, except Listeria monocytogenes. Rose geranium essential oil demonstrated good inhibiting effect on the growth of pathogens and was highly regarded by this study as very effective antimicrobial compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin.  Furthermore, the findings from a group of researchers from South Bank University, London, revealed the extensive in vitro antibacterial activity of rose geranium essential oil against S. aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, and S. epidermidis. 
Rose Geranium Essential Oil antioxidant: Rose geranium ranks as among the top medicinal plants with the highest antioxidant activity. Results from the study of Boukhris et al. (2012) established concrete evidence on the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the essential oil extracted from rose geranium leaves and this essential oil’s efficiency in modulating diabetes mellitus-related oxidative stress in experimental animals. Oral administration of rose geranium essential oil on a daily basis to diabetic rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight for 30 days led to a significant reduction in serum glucose and restoration of antioxidant perturbations. Rats receiving rose geranium essential oil doses also displayed a significant increase in glycogen levels and, as observed histologically, decrease in the appearance of fat cells in the liver and a reduced lipid peroxidation content, with an apparent protective effect in hepatic function and metabolism exerted by the essential oil. 
Rose Geranium Essential Oil – Molecular Components and Chemistry
Rose geranium essential oil is a vital source of chemical substances with therapeutic effects, such as linalool, citronellol, geraniol, and their esters. In the study of Boukhris et al. (2012), rose geranium essential oil was found to contain monoterpenoids (67.39%), sesquiterpenoids (25.4%), and other compounds (3.44%). The major components reported were β-citronellol (16.24%) followed by geraniol (15.30%), δ-selinene (8.69%), citronellyl formate (7.39%), geranyl formate (6.47%), l-menthone (4.13%), and linalool-l (3.8%). 
 Boukhatem M. N., Kameli A., Ferhat M. A., Saidi F., Mekarnia M. (2013). Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs. Libyan Journal of Medicine. 8:22520. doi: 10.3402/ljm.v8i0.22520. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24103319
 Rose Geranium 100% Pure Therapeutic Grade Essential Oil- 5 ml. Amazon. Retrieved from https://amazon.com/Rose-Geranium-Therapeutic-Grade-Essential/dp/B005CD9ITO
 Rose geranium oil. WebMD. Retrieved from https://webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-153-rose%20geranium%20oil.aspx?activeingredientid=153&activeingredientname=rose%20geranium%20oil
 Abe S. et al. (2004). Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil. Mediators of Inflammation. 13(1):
21-24. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15203560/
 Sabzghabaee A. M., Shirdare Z., Ebadian B., Aslani A., Ghannadi A. (2011). Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens for the treatment of denture stomatitis. Journal of Dental Research (Isfahan). Suppl 1: S105-108. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23372587
 Rosato A., Vitali C., Gallo D., Balenzano L., Mallamaci R. (2008). The inhibition of Candida species by selected essential oils and their synergism with amphotericin B. Phytomedicine. 15(8): 635-638. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.05.001. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18579358/
 Shin S., Lim S. (2004). Antifungal effects of herbal essential oils alone and in combination with ketoconazole against Trichophyton spp. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2004;97(6):1289-96. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15546420/
 Ghannadi A. (2012). Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. Iranian Journal of Microbiology. 4(4): 171-176. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23205247
 Lis-Balchin M., Buchbauer G., Ribisch K., Wenger M. T. (1998). Comparative antibacterial effects of novel Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 27(3): 135-141. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9750316/
 Boukhris M., Bouaziz M., Feki I., Jemai H., El Feki A., Sayadi S. (2012). Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Lipids in Health and Disease. 11: 81. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-81. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22734822
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